THE POSTCOLONIAL NIGHTMARE OF FAILED LEADERSHIP AND POVERTY IN HYGINUS EKWUAZI’S LOVE APART AND DAWN INTO MOONLIGHT

THE POSTCOLONIAL NIGHTMARE OF FAILED LEADERSHIP AND POVERTY IN HYGINUS EKWUAZI’S LOVE APART AND DAWN INTO MOONLIGHT

he challenge of leadership in Africa, and of course Nigeria, is a grave one. Unlike before when the problem of Africa’s underdevelopment was always blamed on the colonial experience, today it is usually traced to bad leadership. The view that bad leadership is the major bane of Nigeria’s development also finds expression in many creative writings. While these writings in the genre of prose and drama have attracted a lot of critical attention, this is not the case with poetry. This article examines the representation of postcolonial leadership in Hyginus Ekwuazi’s two poetry collections, Love Apart and Dawn into Moonlight, with a view to determining how political leadership in the country has failed its followership. From the analysis of the relevant poems in the collections, Nigeria’s postcolonial leadership is depicted as nightmarish and disastrous. It is particularly implicated in the ‘crime’ of poverty that is pervasive in the country. Keywords: Leadership in Literature, Hyginus Ekwuazi’s Poetry, Third Generation Nigerian Poetry

VOWEL HARMONY IN UKWUANI

VOWEL HARMONY IN UKWUANI

Abstract This paper looks at vowel harmony system in Ukwuani (an Igboid language spoken in the Northern part of Delta State). Applying the descriptive and autosegmental approaches, the paper looks at the type of vowel harmony system that operates in the language showing the co-occurrence restrictions and peculiarities. Data were collected from competent native speaker collaborators using the Ibadan four hundred word list from which generalizations were made. The study reveals that Ukwuani has a nine vowel system which is neatly divided into two mutually exclusive sets: [+ATR] (Advance Tongue Root) and [-ATR] (Retracted Tongue Root) with /a/ partly neutral since it can co-occur with both sets, though more with the [-ATR] vowels. The infinitive, the past tense marker, gerund and the noun agent are formed by prefixing or suffixing either the [+ATR] or [-ATR] vowel based on the root vowel. /i/ or /ɪ/ is attached to the root of the infinitive and past tense marker, while /o/ or /ɔ/ is attached to the gerund and the noun agent. We can thus say that the language operates a root control vowel harmony system since the feature of the root vowel spreads over to the prefix and suffix vowels. It was also found out that the domain of harmony in the language is limited to monosyllabic and disyllabic words. In polysyllabic words, the harmony seems to break down since each root word has a mixture of vowels from the two harmonizing sets. From the analysis, we conclude that, Ukwuani operates a partial vowel harmony system because there are cases of co-occurrence from both sets. This work is significant because it fills the gap in the Ukwuani vowel harmony literature since much of the emphasis has been on the Standard Igbo language and its varieties. Keywords: vowel harmony, retracted, advance tongue root, partial harmony, mutually exclusive, Ukwuani

THE PLACE OF THE GIRL-CHILD IN A PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY: A STUDY OF EVWIERHOMA’S SELECTED POEMS

THE PLACE OF THE GIRL-CHILD IN A PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY: A STUDY OF EVWIERHOMA’S SELECTED POEMS

Much importance is placed on the sex of a male child in African culture while the female is a subordinate. Africa is a patriarchal society in which identity reflects the importance of sex. Poems tell stories in peculiar ways and even explore life issues. This paper discusses the place of the girl-child in a patriarchal society and issues affecting women as portrayed by Mabel Evwierhoma in her selected poems from two different collections titled Out of Hiding: Poems and A Song as I am and Other Poems. This paper reveals that the thematic concerns treated by the poet in relation to women and the girl-child are interrelated issues an average indigene of Niger Delta area faces. Analytical and interpretative methods are adopted in the discourse. Feminist Literary Theory has been adopted as the relevant theoretical lens for this paper due to its focus on such thematic concerns as the Girl-Child; Patriarchal Challenges and African Women’s Experiences. Among the discoveries in this paper are an existence of undemocratic economy in Nigeria and a yawning for justice and equity in constraining circumstances that affect the girl-child and women precisely. As part of the findings in this paper is the fact that the patriarchal nature of African society enhances the feminist struggle for equity, peaceful co-existence and sustainable development. The contribution of this paper is that poems consist of diverse perspectives ranging from historical to contemporary issues in the society and solutions for sustenance and development that readers and critics should analyse, interpret and adopt so as to integrate females properly in the societies of the world to eradicate the oppression of women and girls. Keywords: Girl-Child, Culture, Women, Sexual Abuse, Marriage, Education.

NIGERIAN PIDGIN MUSIC AND SOCIAL REALITY

NIGERIAN PIDGIN MUSIC AND SOCIAL REALITY

The study entitled ‘Nigerian Pidgin music and Social Reality’ examines social realities communicated in Nigerian Pidgin music. In order to achieve the aim, the researcher identified ten Pidgin songs. Through a purposive sampling method, one of the ten identified Pidgin songs was isolated for further study. The song selected is Fela Anikukpukpo Kuti’s “wen troubu slip yanga go wakam” sung by one of the pioneer Nigerian popular musician. The lexis of the song is the data for the study. The data collected is analysed using Halliday’s (2004) Systemic Functional Theory. Findings from the study reveal weighty political and social issues in the society. Such issues as political looting, bad governance, poverty, hunger amongst others. Key words: Pidgin, Music, Weighty, Issues, Society, Enlightenment, Language

NON-VERBAL CUES AS DISCOURSE STRATEGY IN SOYINKA’S DEATH AND THE KING’S HORSEMAN

NON-VERBAL CUES AS DISCOURSE STRATEGY IN SOYINKA’S DEATH AND THE KING’S HORSEMAN

This article examined Soyinka’s Death and the King’s Horseman from a non-verbal communication perspective. The purpose was to demonstrate how non-verbal elements have aided the conveyance of meanings in the dramatic text. Excerpts that had ample use of non-verbal cues were purposively selected.