Conjunctions in Ngwa

Conjunctions in Ngwa

Ngwa is a dialect of Igbo. The word ‘Ngwa’ also refers to the people and the geo – political area known as Ngwa land. The Ngwa people are found in Abia State in the Federal republic of Nigeria. Of the seventeen Local Government Areas in Abia State, seven belong to the Ngwa people namely: Isiala Ngwa North, Isiala Ngwa South, Obingwa, Oisisioma, Aba North, Aba South and Ugwunagbo. This paper examined conjunctions in Ngwa. Data for the study were obtained from competent native speakers using the elicitation method of oral interview, where the native speakers were requested to repeat some English sentences into Ngwa. As a native speaker of Ngwa, my intuition helped in the assessment of the data collected. The paper seeks: to identify the various types of conjunctions in Ngwa, to indicate that coordinate conjunctions conjoin constituents of equal status, while subordinate conjunctions embed a dependent constituent into a matrix and to show that conjunctions do not occur at sentence final position in Ngwa. The framework employed for the presentation and analysis of data, is the x-bar theory. The x-bar framework provides the required base for the presentation of conjoined or subordinated constituents. The findings of this work on conjunctions in Ngwa are: that conjunctions are used in the unification of constituents for the expression of a single proposition, that the type of conjunction involved in a construction indicates the type of structural relationship of the conjoined constituents, that conjunctions are used in the expansion of constructions in Ngwa and that zeugmatic constructions are as a result of the coordination of constructs of unidentical class. Keywords: conjunction, coordination, Ngwa, subordination and x-bar theory.

A Linguistic Stylistic Analysis of Chukwuemeka Ike’s The Potter’s Wheel

A Linguistic Stylistic Analysis of Chukwuemeka Ike’s The Potter’s Wheel

This paper is a linguistic stylistic study of one of the novels of Chukwuemeka Ike - The Plotter’s Wheel. The study examines the creative sensibilities of the author and demonstrates his linguistic and communicative competence as a mature user of English as a second language. Though Chukwuemeka Ike has written many novels, he seems not to have enjoyed enough scholarly attention either from literary scholars or stylisticians. The study is premised on the theoretical framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) which integrates language form and language function. The focus is therefore mainly an effort in explicating the language use in the text. This supports the views of Halliday (1964) who defines linguistic stylistics as the description of literary text by methods derived from general linguistic theory and within the framework of the description of the language in question. Two major linguistic features examined in the paper are lexico-semantic design and syntactic choices of the author. It is hoped that the little effort made here will stimulate more interest in linguistic stylistic studies in general and the works of Chukwuemeka Ike in particular. Key Terms: Linguistics, Stylistics, Systemic Linguistics, Literary text, Protagonist.

A psychoanalysis of Therese C. Odigwe’s The survivor and Ngozi O.Orji’s Teenager at war

A psychoanalysis of Therese C. Odigwe’s The survivor and Ngozi O.Orji’s Teenager at war

Both novels chronicle the negative effects of the civil war on children, teenagers and youths generally. The chief character in Ngozi Orji's Teenager at War Louis was in love with his fellow teenager Chioma, Louis was later conscripted into the military to fight on the side of Biafra, while Chioma was helped her mother Mrs Agah with her restaurant business. The place setting of the novel started from Enugu, to Okigwe and Umuahia as the towns fell to the Nigerian soldiers respectively. It was a disastrous end for the tragic-hero Louis, who was tried and executed by the Brifran government for negligence of duty. Also Therese C Odigwe's The Survivor mirrors the hindrance the civil war posed on the love bond between the chief character Stanley and his fianće Valentina. Though both characters were actively involved in the civil war, Stanley was a pilot while Valentina was a professional nurse who worked with the Biafran Medical Rescue Team, but they survived the survived at last. In this paper, a psychoanalysis of Therese C. Odigwe'sThe Survivor and Ngozi O.Orji's Teenager at War was carried out with a view to establishing the psycho-response of the characters and to an extent that of the authors to the prevalent situation in both novels which was war. The subject matter of both novels was the Nigeria-Biafra war which took place between 1967 to 1970.The writer x-rayed the relationship between psychology and literature which gave rise to the theory of Psychoanalysis as tool in literary analysis. A foray into the psychology of the characters revealed that pandemic situation orchestrated by the war, stimulated a maladaptive response by virtually all the characters which manifested in the form of fear, insecurity, disillusionment and predatory lifestyles etc. Keywords: character, Nigeria, novels, psychoanalysis.

An intricate analysis of translation techniques in the English translation of Oyono’s Le vieux nègre et la médaille

An intricate analysis of translation techniques in the English translation of Oyono’s Le vieux nègre et la médaille

This study attempts to identify and analyse the translation techniques employed in the English translation of Oyono’s Le Vieux Nègre et la Médaille, the prose text is translated into English by John Reed as The old man and the Medal in 1967. It is quite apparent that some translators do not fret about translation techniques in the course of translating but this affects their translation as the works may at times, not producing the same popularity as the original text. The study equally establishes the fact that John Reed postulates the messages of Oyono in his translation and brings about a reasonable level of intelligibility which is target-audience oriented despite the embellished folkloric elements in the source text. The research method adopted in this study is comparative and textual which otherwise attempts to establish the conceptual link between the source text and the target text. This study adopts dynamic equivalence theory of translation which suggests that a dynamic equivalence is to produce in the receptor language, the closest natural equivalence of the source language message in terms of meaning and style. The study therefore, concludes that no translation is perfect but the use and application of appropriate translation techniques and strategies can bring about good translation. Key words: Dynamic equivalence theory, forms, language, meaning, translation

Testing the Efficacy of Concgram Measures in the Extraction of Igbo Multiword Expressions: Implications to Lexicography

Testing the Efficacy of Concgram Measures in the Extraction of Igbo Multiword Expressions: Implications to Lexicography

This is a corpus-driven study on the extraction of Igbo multiword expressions. The paper argues that multiword expressions are found in all types of writings in Igbo. The objective of this paper is to extract multiword expressions which are possible candidates for Igbo dictionary compilation. To achieve this, concgram, a feature of Oxford Wordsmith Tools, was used in extracting multiword candidates from an Igbo corpus of a little more than 2-million tokens. Five (5) highly frequent Igbo words were selected to determine the efficacy of concgram measures in the extraction of Igbo multiword expressions. The words are: akwụkwọ (book/paper), ala (land), anu (meat/flesh), ikpe (judgment), and okwu (word/speech). Through the use of concgram measures, some of the extracted multiword expressions include: akwụkwọnri (lit: book food; fig: vegetable); akwụkwọndu (lit: book life; fig: fresh vegetation); ozialanna (lit: message land father; fig: national service); alanri (lit: land food; fig: fertile/productive land); anuahu (lit: meat body; fig: physical); anuulo (lit: meat house; fig: domestic animal); ikpeazu (lit: judgment back; fig: trial in absentia). Results show that the concgram tool is effective in the extraction of Igbo multiword expressions. The motivation for the extraction of multiword expressions in this study is for lexicon development, which can be in the form of recognition of multiword expressions and entering them into the dictionary of Igbo. Keywords: congram measures, corpus analysis, extraction, multiword expressions,

Cultivation of Lyricism by the Arabic Versemakers of Yoruba Extraction

Cultivation of Lyricism by the Arabic Versemakers of Yoruba Extraction

Ikirun, the locale of this study, is a prominent town in Yorubaland in Nigeria. It is one of the centres of Arabic literary activities in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little attention has been paid to the role that the ‘Ulamā’(Arabic scholars) of this town played in advancing the cause of Arabic scholarship in Yorubaland. The paper, therefore, focuses on the literary genres of the Ikirun ‘Ulamā’ more generally and their lyrical verses more specifically. It is remarkable that the cultivation of these lyrical verses is not peculiar to the Arabic writings of Ikirun scholars as they feature in the Arabic literary productions of the other parts of Yorubaland. It employs the contents analysis method to examine the genres of the writing of the ‘Ulamā’ in Ikirun. It argues that the Ikirun ‘Ulamā’ contributed significantly to lyricism with their works on panegyrics, threnody, satire, occasional poems and distress appeal. Apart from being a compass to researchers in Yoruba literary scholarship, the study provides information about the creativity of Ikirun‘Ulamā’. The information presented in the article showcases a significant aspect of the diverse genres of the literary productions in Yorubaland as well and establishes the status of Ikirun as a great centre of Arabic scholarship in Yorubaland. Keywords: Arabic, , Ikirun, Lyricism,Nigeria, Poetry, ‘Ulamā’, Yoruba

Information Communication Technology: A Medium for Transforming Early Childhood Care and Education in Nigeria

Information Communication Technology: A Medium for Transforming Early Childhood Care and Education in Nigeria

In recent years, the impact of information communication technology (ICT) on virtually every sector has been enormous. The entrance of ICT has basically affected all aspects of human endeavor; government, business, education etc. Prior to this period, the quality of education to a large extend has traditionally been associated with teachers having high degrees. However, there is a growing recognition of the many different ways that information communication technology (ICT) can contribute to the quality of education; especially in Early Childhood Care and Education. The use of computer technology in teaching and learning in the preprimary and the primary schools is gaining much ground most especially in the private schools in Nigeria. This has led to the preference for these private schools over the government public schools. However, the extent to which ICT is deployed in these private schools and how much it has impacted on the development of early childhood education (ECCE) in Nigeria is yet to be dully ascertained. Hence, the need for practitioners to have early childhood education guidance and opportunities to become capable, competent, and informed about the educational roles and potential of ICT in early childhood education practice. This paper examines the role which information communication technology plays in the transformation of early childhood education in Nigeria, its benefits and the concomitant emerging trends. Keywords: Early childhood care, education, ICT, teaching, learning.

Analyse de l’acte de parole dans La calebasse cassée de Tunde Fatunde

Analyse de l’acte de parole dans La calebasse cassée de Tunde Fatunde

Résumé Dans les pièces théâtrales, l’on note l’emphase sur les jeux des rôles à travers les échanges de conversation. Ce trait principal les place strictement sous le domaine des études pragmatiques. La problématique de conversation s’enfonce dans la complexité d’un énoncé car tous les participants (le locuteur et l’interlocuteur ou un groupe d’interlocuteurs) n’ont pas naturellement le même statut, le même motif, et la même opinion dans un sujet de discours. Voici la raison pour le choix du concept de l’acte de parole comme décrit par Gibbons et Whiteley (2018) dans cette communication. La pièce est divisée en deux atmosphères. Trois extraits des conversations sont identifiés pour cette étude : les premiers deux extraits sont tirés de la première atmosphère et le troisième de la deuxième atmosphère. Comme conclusion ce travail affirme parmi d’autres que le locuteur devient puissant quand il possède le renseignement sur le sujet de discussion. Mots-clés : locuteur, interlocuteur, acte, énoncé, réponse

Le sexospécifique : Concept et vue générale d’ONU-femmes en matière des droits de la femme actuelle, son autonomisation et l’édification nationale

Le sexospécifique : Concept et vue générale d’ONU-femmes en matière des droits de la femme actuelle, son autonomisation et l’édification nationale

Résumé Le terme “National Development” qu’on pourrait rapporter en français comme ‘la Rénovation nationale’ ou ‘ l’Edification nationale’ ne serait jamais réalisée sans l’intégration des politiques d’égalité entre hommes et femmes. Le sexospécifique ou l’égalité des sexes reste une dimension très importante dans la stratification sociale. Néanmoins, les organisations humanitaires comme l’ONU-Femmes, sous l’égide de l’Organisation des Nations Unies(ONU) s’efforcent au cours de ces années d’améliorer les conditions de la femme, surtout dans les pays en voie de développement. Donc, ce travail modeste, essaierait de radiographier les visions et les approches sensibles au genre et sexo-transformatrice que l’ONU-Femmes tente à réaliser, dès son commencement en juillet, 2010 pour l’amélioration de la vie des femmes et des filles qui sont désormais, les moins privilégiées dans le monde entier. Nos dirigeants en Afrique, surtout au Nigéria doivent collaborer avec des partenaires des Nations Unies comme ONU-Femmes, afin de réaliser les objectifs principaux de l’intégration sexospécifique pour l’avenir meilleur. Mot-clés : femmes, intégration, Organisation Nations Unies, sexospécifique

The verbal system of Nupe

The verbal system of Nupe

This paper presents a description of the Nupe verbal system and the various ways in which tense, aspect and mood are encoded. Through the description of the structures and uses of the various forms, it attempts to demonstrate how the different conjugations fit together to form a coherent whole, morphologically and semantically. The major grammatical constructions described are the verbal morphology, affixation, complex verbs, nominalization, repetition and serial verb constructions. The study adopts descriptive approach analysis. The study concludes that the function of the Nupe verbal system is related to word order and sentence structure not only at the level of the sentence, but also at the level of discourse. Key words: Morphology, Nupe, Serial verb, and Typology